The role of multigelation in the development of river banks

Karol AUGUSTOWSKI

Abstract


The development of river banks is conditioned by a few factors: fluvial erosion, mass movements and subaerial processes. Many researchers believe that the subaerial phenomena are more preparatory processes to actual erosion than the erosion itself. Among the subaerial phenomena, freezing and thawing play a key role. Multigelation affects the stability and sustainability of river banks, not only in the northern reaches of Eurasia andNorth Americabut also in temperate latitudes. Susceptibility to change in bank morphology, however, is extremely selective. Within the same layer, at a distance of 1 metre the intensity of frost erosion can be very different. This is the result of many factors determining the rate of bank retreat. These include: the height of the bank, its structure and texture, physical and chemical properties of the material from which it is built, environmental conditions, soil moisture, water pressure in the pore spaces, porosity and density of the soil, organic matter content in the soil, temperature, vegetation, as well as thickness and duriation of snow cover. An important objective is therefore to show the differences in the rate of retreat of the river banks, and above all characterized by varying degrees of density and grain size of the material it is build of. 


Keywords


multigelation, frost action, needle ice, bank retreat

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, P.M., Arnold, J., Jakubowski, E., 1999. Prediction of stream channel erosion potential. Environmental and Engineering Geoscience 3, 339–351.

Casagli, N., Rinaldi, M., Gargini, A., Curini, A., 1999. Pore water pressure and streambank stability: Results from a monitoring site on the Sieve River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24/12, 1095–1114.

Coffman, D., 2009. Streambank Erosion Assessment in Non-cohesive Channels Using Erosion Pins and Submerged Jet Testing. Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, Ph.D. Thesis.

Couper, P.R., 2003. Effects of silt–clay content on the susceptibility of river banks to subaerial erosion. Geomorphology 56, 95–108.

Couper, P.R., Maddock, I.P., 2001. Subaerial river bank erosion processes and their interaction with other bank erosion mechanisms on the River Arrow, Warwickshire, UK. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26, 631–646.

Couper, P.R., Scott, T., Maddock, I.P., 2002. Insights into river bank erosion processes derived from anaylsis of negative erosion-pin recordings: observations from three recent UK studies. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27/1, 59–79.

Dietrich, W.E., Gallinatti, J.D., 1991. Fluvial geomorphology. [In:] Slaymaker, O., (ed.), Field Experiments and Measurement Programs in Geomorphology. Balkema, Rotterdam, 169–229.

Green, T.R., Beavis, S.G., Dietrich, C.R., Jakeman, A.J., 1999. Relating stream–bank erosion to in-stream transport of suspended sediment. Hydrological Processes 13, 777–787.

Grissinger, E.H., 1982. Bank erosion of cohesive materials. [In:] Hey, R.D., Bathurst, J.C., Thorne, C.R., (eds.), Gravel-bed Rivers. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, UK, 273–287.

Haigh, M.J., 1977. The use of erosion pins in the study of slope evolution. [In:] Shorter Technical Methods (II). British Geomorphological Research Group Technical Bulletin Group 18, 31–49.

Hancock, G.R., Murphy, D., Evans, K.G., 2010. Hillslope and catchment scale soil organic carbon concentration: An assessment of the role of geomorphology and soil erosion in an undisturbed environment. Geoderma 155/1-2, 36–45.

Hooke, J.M., 1979. An analysis of the processes of river bank erosion. Journal of Hydrology 42, 39–62.

Hooke, J.M., 1980. Magnitude and distribution of rates of river bank erosion. Earth Surface Processes 5, 143–157.

Hupp, C.R., Schenk, E.R., Richter, J.M., Peet, R.K., Townsend, P.A., 2009. Bank erosion along the dam-regulated lower Roanoke River, North Carolina. The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 451, 97–108.

Keesstra, S.D., Bruijnzeel, L.A., van Huissteden, J., 2009. Meso-scale catchment sediment budgets: combining field surveys and modeling in the Dragonja catchment, southwest Slovenia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34/11, 1547–1561.

Knapen, A., Poesen, J., Grovers, G., Gyssels, G., Nachtergaele, J., 2007, Resistance of soils to concentrated flow erosion: A review. Earth Science Reviews 80, 75–109.

Larsen, E.W., Fremier, A.K., Greco, S.E., 2006. Cumulative Effective Stream Power and Bank Erosion on the Sacramento River, California, USA. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Paper No. 04232.

Lawler, D.M., 1991. A new technique for the automatic monitoring of erosion and deposition rates. Water Resources Research 27/8, 2125–2128.

Lawler, D.M., 1992. Process dominance in bank erosion systems. [In:] Carling, P., Petts, G.E., (eds.), Lowland Floodplain Rivers. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 117–143.

Lawler, D.M., 1993. Needle ice processes and sediment mobilisation on river bends; the River Ilston, West Glamorgan, UK. Journal of Hydrology 150, 81–114.

Lawler, D.M., 1995. The impact of scale on the processes of channelside sediment supply: a conceptual model. [In:] Osterkamp, W.T., (ed.), Effects of Scale on Interpretation and Management of Sediment and Water Quality. IAHS Pub. 226. IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, 175–184.

Lawler, D.M., 2008. Advances in the continuous monitoring of erosion and deposition dynamics: Developments and applications of the new PEEP-3T system. Geomorphology 93, 17–39.

Lawler, D.M., Thorne, C.R., Hooke, J.M., 1997. Bank erosion and instability. [In:] Thorne, C.R., Hey, R.D., Newson, M.D., (eds.), Applied Fluvial Geomorphology for River Engineering and Management. Wiley, Chichester, 137–172.

McDermott, J.P., Sherman, D.J., 2009. Using Photo-Electronic Erosion Pins for Measuring Bed Elevation Changes in the Swash Zone. Journal of Coastal Research, 788–792.

Mitchell, S.B., Couperthwaite, J.S., West, J.R., Lawler, D.M., 2003. Measuring sediment exchange rates on an intertidal bank at Blacktoft, Humber Estuary, UK. Science of the Total Environment 314, 535–549.

Prosser, I.P., Hughes, A.O., Rutherfurd, I.D., 2000. Bank erosion of an incised upland channel by subaerial processes: Tasmania, Australia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25, 1011–1085.

Raudkivi, A.J., 1990. Loose Boundary Hydraulics, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 538

Saynor, M.J., Loughran, R.J., Wayne, D.E., Scott, P.F., 1994. Sediment movement on hillslopes measured by caesium-137 and erosion pins. Variability in Stream Erosion and Sediment Transport, Proceedings of the Canberra Symposium, December 1994, IAHS Publ. 224, 87–93.

Saynor, M.J., Erskine, W.D. 2006. Spatial and temporal variations in bank erosion on sand-bed streams in the seasonally wet tropics of northern Australia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31/9, 1080–1099.

Schumm, S.A., 1960. The effect of sediment type on the shape and stratification of some modern fluvial deposits. American Journal of Science 258, 177–184.

Teisseyre, A.K., 1984. Procesy fluwialne i rozwój koryta górnego Bobru na odcinku badawczym w Błażkowej. Geologia Sudetica 19/1, 7–72.

Thorne, C.R., 1982. Processes and mechanisms of river bank erosion. [In:] Hey, R.D., Bathurst, J.C., Thorne, C.R., (eds.), Gravel-Bed Rivers, Wiley, Chichester, 227–272.

Thorne, C.R., 1990. Effects of vegetation on river bank erosion and stability. [In:] Thornes, J.B., (ed.), Vegetation and Erosion. Wiley, Chichester, 125–144.

Thorne, C.R., 1992. Bend scour and bank erosion on the meandering Red River, Louisiana. [In:] Carling, M.A., Petts, G.E., (eds.), Lowland Floodplain Rivers: Geomorphological Perspectives. Wiley, Chichester, 95–116.

Thorne, C.R., Osman, A.M., 1988. The influence of bank stability on regime geometry of natural channels. [In:] White, W.R., (ed.), International Conference on River Regime. Hydraulics Research, Wallingford, 134–148.

Thorne, C.R., Tovey, N.K., 1981. Stability of composite river banks. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 6, 469–484.

Walker, J., Arnborg, L., Peippo, J., 1987. Riverbank erosion in the Colville Delta, Alaska. Geografiska Annaler 69A/1, 61–70.

Wallick, J.R., Lancaster, S.T., Bolte, J.P., 2006. Determination of Bank Erodibility for Natural and Anthropogenic Bank Materials Using a Model of Lateral Migration and Observed Erosion Along the Willamette River, Oregon, USA. River Research and Applications 22, 631–649.

Wolman, M.G., 1959. Factors influencing erosion of a cohesive river bank. American Journal of Science 257, 204–216.

Wynn, T.M., Mostaghimi, S., 2006. The effects of vegetation and soil type on streambank erosion, Southwestern Virginia, USA. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42, 69–82.

Wynn, T.M., Henderson, M.B., Vaughan, D.H., 2008. Changes in streambank erodibility and critical shear stress due to subaerial processes along a headwater stream, southwestern Virginia, USA. Geomorphology 97, 260–273.

Zaimes, G.N., Schultz, R.C., Isenhart, T.M., Mickleson, S.K., Kovar, J.L., Russell, J.R., Powers, W.P., 2005. Stream bank erosion under different riparian land-use practices in northeast Iowa. AFTA 2005 Conference Proceedings, 1–10.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4316/GEOREVIEW.2013.22.1.69